JPRS 84352

19 September 1983

USSR Report


No. 16




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JPRS 84352

19 September 1983


No. 16


New Food Industry Developments Outlined (EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA, No 28, Jul 83) eeeeseeeveeeeeeeeeeeeeeeneee l

Soviet Science Coordination Council Holds 39th Session (Raymo Pullat; IZVESTIYA AKADFMII NAUK ESTONSKOY SSR: OBSHCHESTVENNYYE NAUKI, No 2, 1983) *e*eeoeeeeeneeneeeeneaeneneeeneneeneneneeeee’. 6

Marchuk on Tasks Facing Inventors, Innovators (GC. Marchuk; TRUD, 25 May 83) eeeeveeeveeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeewveeaeeeaeeeee ll

Analysis of Published Work Essential for Planning of Scientific Research (Ss, Kara-Mur7za; PRAVDA, 6 May 83) *eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeenee 16

Scientific, Technical Progress Must Be Accelerated (Editorial; PRAVDA, 28 May 83) *eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeaeeaeeee 20

New System of Incentives for Scientific Personnel Analyzed (A. Osipenko; PROMYSHLENNOST' BELORUSSII, No 3, Mar 83) ....... 23

Needed Improvements in VUZ Research Discussed (S, Vermeyenko, A. Golovachev; PROMYSHLENNOST' BELORUSSI, No 3, Mar 83) eevee eeewveeeeeaeeeev eee eee e eevee ee ee eee eee eee eeaeeaneeee 28

Scientific-Technical Information Used To Coordinate S&T Programs (M, Muminov, GC. Vaynshteyn; EKONOMIKA I ZHIZN', No 2, Feb 83) . 32

Ways To Speed Up Practical Application of Research Results Discussed (I. Sigov; EKONOMICHESKIYE NAUKI, No 5, May 83) ...ceceeeseeees 36

Improvements in Dissemination of Production Experience Proposed (A. Gorelykh; EKONOMICHESKIYE NAUKI, No 5, May 83) ....-eeeeees 42

Cost Accounting and Organizational Structure of Production Units Discussed (V. Tarasov; EKONOMICHESKIYE NAUKI, No 5, May 83) ...ceeeeseees 48

, -a- [III - USSR - 2lo S&T]

Unified Scientific-Technical Policy Discussed (Yu. Simonov; EKONOMICHESKIYE NAUKI, No 5, May 83) ..sseeeeeees

Azerbaijan People's Control Conference on Academy of Sciences Work (A. Eberlin; BAKINSKIY RABOCHIY, 24 Apr 83) ...ccccccccccvevcees

Economic, Technical Development and Future of Special Electrometallurgy Reviewed (B. Paton, B,. Medovar; IZVESTIYA, 27 May 83) ..ccccceecseeeeces

Principles, Ideas, Goals of Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics Examined (B. Konovalov; IZVESTIYA, various dates) ...cccscccccscsvvceees

Belorussian Physicists Honored for Dynamic Holography Work (A. Afanas'yev, A. Ubranovich; PROMYSHLENNOST’ BELORUSSII, No 3, Mar 83) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeveeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeaeaeeeee

Rebane Discusses Work of Estonian Academy of Sciences (K. Rebane Interview; SOVETSKAYA ESTONIYA, 17 Apr 83) ......6..-








(Survey prepared by the Board of the Agroindustrial Complex of the State Committee for Science and Technology of the USSR: "New Developments in the Food Industry” ]

\Text] The 26th party congress set for the food industry branches--an important part of the agroindustrial complex--the task of improving the quality and the assortment and increasing the output of food products enriched with protein, vi- tamins and other wholesome ingredients. Outstripping development is planned for the production of baby foods and dietetic products. We need to considerably in- crease the thoroughness of the processing, improve the use of agricultural raw materials and extensively introduce the aseptic method of canning fruits and veg- etables and the use of chilling facilities for the processing and storage of agricultural products.

All of these matters are reflected in the special, comprehensive scientific and technical program: "Development of the Production of Biologically High-Grade Food Products Through Complete Utilization and Reduced Losses of Raw Materials.”

implementation of the measures outlined in the program will bring about an in- crease in the production of high-quality food products, better utilization of the traditional raw materials and the obtainment of additional sources of food pro- tein. This will contribute to the establishment of a wholesome diet, which will help to prevent many ailments, first and foremost, obesity. It is planned to conserve the work of 350,000 people by increasing labor productivity in the main branches of the food industry by 1985, and to increase food commodity stocks by

a total of around 3 billion rubles worth in 1985 and as much as 4.5 billion rub- les worth in 1990,

Reneficial to Health

(he measures specified in the program focus on the total utilization of raw ma- terials for the production of biologically high-grade food products. At the pre- sent time only 40 percent of the skimmed milk and buttermilk and approximately one fourth of the whey are being used in food products. This is significantly less than in many other countries.

The program calls for the continuation of projects underway and for the creation of new types of food products, new technological processes and equipment for the

production and utilization of vegetable and animal proteins, including cross- linked proteins. This will make it possible to increase supplies of meat pro- ducts by 1 million tons between 1981 and 1985 and to increase the industrial processing of skimmed milk, buttermilk and whey to 36 million tons in 1985, Work is now being performed in this area by the Special Problems Laboratory ot the Moscow Technological Institute of the Meat and Dairy Industry and by the Elementoorganic Compounds Institute,

The stress is on replacing the missing amino acids tryptophan, lysine and meth- ionine. This is being done by adding soy flour, milk and curds, as well as to- mato paste, carrot juice and other fruit and vegetable additives, to the food products.

More and more attention has been devoted in the world in recent years to research and practical work in the area of deriving proteins from nontraditional vegetable matter as a functional additive to impart certain desirable qualities to food products.

Work is being performed on this problem by organizations of the USSR Ministry of Public Health, the USSR Ministry of the Food Industry, the USSR Ministry of the Meat and Dairy Industry and the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences under a special- purpose, comprehensive program, in cooperation with the other CEMA nations. The first batch of plant protein has been obtained for the enrichment of food pro-

luct Se

[he baked goods industry has developed varieties of bread with deodorized soy flour and lecithin. Bread and flour products are being created with milk-protein concentrates for children. The Nutrition Institute of the USSR Academy of Medi- cal Sciences has worked out the technology and the recipes for new macarori pro- ducts enriched with powdered eggs in combination with powered milk, as well as products including powdered eggs and low-fat curds. Work has been started on the development of protein-free vermicelli from cornstarch with the addition of the calcium and phosphorous salts required by children.

Technologies and recipes containing milk and soy protein, developed through re- search conducted under the program, are being introduced in the confectionery iudusiry. This will make it possible to balance their amino acid content within specific ranges and to enhance their nutritional value. New types of confection- ery items contain an average of 4 to 18.5 percent of protein additives for en- richment, which increases the protein content by the same percentage and reduces the amount of carbohydrates correspondingly.

More than 4,000 tons of whey concentrates and 1.3 million tons of natural whey were used in those branches in 1982. This made it possible to turn out an addi- tional 14 million tons of bread and other baked goods and 80,000 tons of confec- tionery items. The use of these materials made it possible to replace part of the sugar, the wheat flour and the powdered and condensed milk, and simultaneously to enhance the nutritional value of the products by enriching them with proteins, minerals, lactose and glucose.

The program calls for expanding the research and for mastering the industrial production of nutritionally balanced products for healthy and ill children, which will make it possible to improve their nutrition, whether they are being fed at home or at child-care facilities, It is planned by 1985 to increase the output of powdered milk mixtures--motier's milk replacements--to 9,500 tons and the pro- duction of liquid and paste products with a milk base to 100,000 tons, the pro- duction of canned homogenized meat products to 50 million standard cans and the output of canned fruits and vegetables to 900 million standard cans,

Preserving Without Losses

Freezing is considered to be one of the most progressive means in use for the prolonged storage of all types of foodstuffs, and with complete justification. This process retains to the greatest degree the basic quality indices--both or- ganoleptic (appearance, taste, odor, color and consistency) and nutritional (con- tent of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and biologically active sub- stances).

[he output of quick-frozen pioducts is to be increased to 540,000 tons by 1985, A total of 55 sets of equipment will be developed for these purposes, their series production will be mastered and they w‘!l be delivered to industry.

Scientific research institutes of the USSR Mi.istry of the Meat and Dairy Indus- try, the USSR Ministry of the Fruit and Vegetable Industry, the USSR Ministry of the Fish Industry and the USSR Ministry of Trade have prepared standard techni- cal documentation for more than 230 types of quick-frozen, ready-to-eat dishes and semi-prepared products of fruits and vegetables, meats, dairy products, fish and combinations of ingredients. This assortment is fully adequate to meet the demands of industry and the general consumer.

the general use of quick-frozen, semi-prepared and ready-to-eat dishes will make it possible to reduce losses of agricultural products by 10-20 percent and to

cut water and energy consumption by 20-40 percent, compared with the present sys- tem for storing products and preparing food in public catering and in the home.

It is advisable to consume fruits, vegetables and berries evenly throughout the vear. It should be noted that the canning process using modern, scientifically based technology and corresponding equipment makes it possible to retain the in- itial nutritional and biologically active substance of fruits and vegetables to

a greater degree and significantly longer than when they are stored fresh for long periods of time. This is especially true of the aseptic canning method with its brief exposure of the product to heat and good storage conditions, which keep out light aud oxygen. This method is considerably more economical than the others.

[In 1985-1986, with the participation of the CEMA nations, we will master the series production of complete sets of equipment for the aseptic canning and pre- serving of liquid and pureed food products in tanks with capacities of 100 and 300 cubic meters, in special railcar and truck tanks, and complete sets of equip- ment for transporting, receiving and storing these at the sites of their consump- tion, as well as automatic equipment for packaging these products in small quan- tities for the consumer. Under the program an experimental shop for the aseptic

canning of liquid and pureed semi-prepared products with a capacity of 18,000 tons ts to be created in the Moldavian SSR in 1985, and an experimental shop is to be built in Murmansk for the receiving, continued storage and processing of quick-frozen and aseptically canned semi-prepared food products and their pack- aging in small quantities for the consumer, with a capacity of up to 30,000 tons per year,

[he Raw Materials Must be Completely Processed

lhe program devotes a great deal of attention to the complete utilization of the agricultural products. A number of assignments focus on this. Among other things, the Grigoriopol Agroindustrial Association and the Slavyansk Canning Plant have been given the assignment of setting up and mastering an experimental industrial facility for the complete processing of apples for juice and sauce, which will make it possible to reduce the portion of by-products used for indus- trial and feed purposes to 8-10 percent. Experimental production lines are to be placed into operation there by the end of this year.

fhe Tiraspol Agroindustrial Association of the Moldavian SSR's Ministry of the Fruit and Vegetable Industry, VNIIKOP[All-Union Scientific Research Institute of the Canning and Dehydrated Vegetables Industry], "Giproplodoovoshchprom" and "Penzkhimmash" are to set up an experimental industrial facility for the total processing of apples for juice and pressed residue for the production of pectin, using continuous-action equipment with an output of 7 tons per hour.

We are continuing to actively introduce progressive technological processes for preparing items for public catering with industrial methods. The Ministry of Machine Building for the Light and Food Industry and Household Appliances is mas- tering the production of sets of equipment for producing, packaging, storing, transporting and selling these products, using various types of standardized con- tainers.

The restructuring of public catering for operating with this technology will pro- duce a significant social and economic effect, which will be reflected in improve- ment of the quality and the assortment of the dishes end a reduction in the amount of time spent on meals.

In accordance with assignments specified in the program, automated systems are being adopted more and more extensively for controlling the technological pro- cesses in the sugar and the meat and dairy industries, in trade and public cater- ing. A number of the assignments focus on the development, the creation and in- troduction of technological processes and equipment, instruments and means of automation and mechanization for the food industry branches.

A further increase in the production of sugar and other sweet substances depends upon the improvement of the technology for storing the sugar beets. New biolog- ically active compounds and technical means are being used for this purpose. They make it possible to increase the amount of time the beets can be stored and cut sugar losses in the beets.

r Maximum Effect

The total cost estimate for the program for the period 1981-1985 is 56.3 million rubles, including 27,2 million rubles for scienti‘ic research. Around 86 million rubl s will have to be invested in the development of production capacities des- ignated tor working out the new technologies and pertecting the new equipment. \ll of these expenses should be returned 100-fold, The annual economic effect from the planned application ct measures covered by the program will be around 630 million rubles in 1985 und more than a billion rubles in 1990,

fhe maximum effect should be achieved in all the areas of application. Unfor- tunately, there are still bottlenecks along with the successes achieved in the program's fulfillment.

[he work of obtaining and utilizing protein from oil-bearing crops is advancing very slowly. In order to accelerate this work the USSR Ministry of the Food In- dustry (deputy minister V. Chebyshev is presently in charge of these matters) must step up the search for methods of obtaining insulated proteins and preserv- ing their qualities in the purification process, and find additional methods us- ing little energy and involving no drainage for purifying and concentrating the food proteins from oil-seed meal, We need to accelerate the development of the range of aromatization means,

(fhe USSR Ministry of Machine Building for the Light and Food Industry and House- hold Appliances (V. Kopylov, deputy minister) and the USSR Ministry of the Meat ind Dairy Industry (Yu. Sokolov, deputy minister) have dragged out the develop- ment, the manufacture and testing of a set of equipment for producing sterilized liquid and paste products with a milk base, with a capacity of 15 tons per shift.

The expanded production of quick-frozen, ready-to-eat meat dishes, semi-prepared milk products, fruits, vegetables, berries and mixed vegetables is being held up considerably by the lack of specialized production equipment, especially quick- freezing equipment,

the State Committee of the USSR for Science and Technology supported a request the USSR Ministry of the Fruit and Vegetable Industry and allocated it the funds to conduct additional scientific research in the area of making total use of fruits and vegetables. The ministry's plans, however, did not specify limits for the planning work, the provision of the lines being created with technologi- cal and general plant equipment, cable items and materials for creating the ex-

perimental production facility and for turning out products with the new techno-

The Zhdanovtyazhmash Production Association (I. Nagayevakiy, general director) ind the Ministry of Heavy and Transport Machine Building (Ye. Matveyev, deputy

inister) arbitrarily altered the assignment for the creation of tank cars for hauling aseptically canned semi-prepared food items, failing to make it possible to haul pureed and paste products in them. As a result, it will be necessary to develop and master the production of two types of tanks instead of one.

All of these failings should be subjected to principled criticism in the minis- tries mentioned. The assignments contained in the program should be finished on time to produce the maximum national economic effect.

11499 CSO: 1827/264



[Article by Raymo Pullats "The 39th Session of the Council to Coordinate the Scientific Activities of the Union Republics’ Academies of Science s"/

[Text/ The 39th session of the Council to Coordinate the Scientific Activities of the Union Republics’ Academies of Sciences was held in Tallinn on June 8-10 1982. Our country's leading scientists, headed by the president of the

USSR Academy of Sciences, A.P. Aleksandrov, who has been named Hero of Socialist Labor three times, gathered to participate in the session. In addition to A.P. Aleksandrov, those arriving for the session included: Academicians V.A. Kotel'nikov and P.N. Fedoseyev, who are vice presidents

of the USSR Academy of Sciences, and Academicians V.A. Ambartsumyan,

S.V. Vonsovskiy, I.A. Glebov, N.M. Zhavoronkov, B.E. Paton, M.A. Styrikovich, B.S. Sokolov, N.P. Fedorenko and N.M. Emanuel’, who are members of the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences. I.A. Rozanov, CPSU Central Committee sectorchief, took part in the work of the 39th session of

the Coordinating Council, as did presidents, vice presidents and

chief scientific secretaries from the presidiums of the union republics’ academies of sciences, and from the scientific centers and branches of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

On 7 June K.G. Vayno, member of the CPSU Central Committee and first secretary of the Estonian Communist Party Central Committee, received the president

of the USSR Academy of Sciences, A.P. Aleksandrov, and the distinguished scientists from the USSR and ESSR Academies of Sciences who accompanied him. Participating in the conversation were Comrades I.G. Kebin, V.I. Klauson,

A.I. Kudryavtsev, V.A. Kyao,R.E. Ristlaan, A.F. Ryuytel', A.B. I. Upsi,

M.A. Pedak, Estonian Communist Party Central Committee department chief A.J.Aben, ESR Academy of Sciences president K.K. Rebane and others. On this same

day our guests became acquainted with an exhibition of books which was opened at the ESSR Academy of Sciences’ Scientific Library. At a reception held

that evening at the ESSR Academy of Sciences Presidium K.K. Rebane,

president of the ESSR Academy of Sciences and corresponding member of

the USSR Academy of Sciences, presented ESSR Academy of Sciences commemorative medals to the prominent figures of Soviet science,

[ne session opened on & June. The presidium included well-known scientific, party and state figures. The opening remarks were made by Academician

A.P. Aleksandrov, president of the USSR Academy of Sciences and chairman of

tne Coordinating Council. He noted that at the present time problems of

power engineering must be the focus of basic research and that Estonian clentists are making a large contribution to the resolution of these problems.

K.G. Vayno, first secretary of the Estonian Communist Party (CPE) Central

Committee, welcomed the guests on behalf of the CPE Central Committee,

the presidium of tne republic's Supreme Soviet and its Council of Ministers

and said tnat the meeting of scientific leaders from all the fraternal republic

in the capital of Soviet Estonia in the 60th anniversary year of the multi-

national Homeland was a vivid example of the practical implementation of

the Leninist national policy. The science of Soviet Estonia is developing

within the context of numerous fruitful contacts, especially contacts with

tne USSR Academy of Sciences. K.G. Vayno went on to emphasized that the

May Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee presented science with urgent tasks. ence of the question is how to link science and production more closely.

;oal-orlented program research provides the way for science to develop. ine

proframs established at the ESSR Academy of Sciences are concentrating success-

fully the forces of scientists to introduce effective methods for extracting

ind processing shale in order to supply the country's Northwest with electric

power, liquid fuel and chemical products; to utilize rationally Estonian

phosphorites, which are a source of fertility and one of the means for

the fulfillment of the Food Program; to develop new biologically active

compounds for use in medicine, agriculture, etc. and to establish up-to-date

rapid-functioning automatic equipment and microprocessor systems for the

1utomation of production processes. K.G. Vayno took particular note in his

speech of the generous and fruitful assistance which the USSR Academy of

Sclences and the Council to Coordinate the Scientific Activities of the

Union Republics has given to the ESSR Academy of Sciences over a period of

many years. Having noted the general successes of our scientific institutions,

K.G. Vayno went on to talk about several concrete problems as well. He

expressed the hope that the scientists will take measures to resolve these

problems, and he wished the 39th session success in its work.

The ess

Academician M.A. Styrikovich presented a paper "On the Tasks of the Republic Academies of Sciences, the Scientific Centers and the Branches of the USSR Academy of Sciences on the Development of Research in the Area of USSR Fuel and Energy Complexes and on Energy-Saving Technology." He took note of significant changes in the development of worldwide power engineering and economics in general, which are characterized by a sharp increase in oil prices, the growing economic benefit to be derived from replacing

liquid fuel with various energy resources and the implementation of an

energy conservation policy. The speaker reacted positively to the work

of scientists from tne ESSR Academy-of Sciences and certain other scientific icademies to optimize the fuel and energy complex. However, the coordination of research in the area of the fuel and energy complex and energy-saving technologies has a number of inadequacies and requires further improvements in its forms and methods.

The Coordinating Council made a decision to recommend the following to the union republics' academies of sciencess 1) implement scientific-research

and exper’ mental-design work in the area of the fuel and energy complex and energy-saving technologies; 2) develop republic and regional comprehensive pro- grams and methods for long-range prognostication in the development of the fuel and energy complex with consideration for regional features and the availability of mineral raw materials and energy resources.

K.K. Redane, president of the ESSR Academy of Sciences, presented a report which he nad written in collaboration with I.P. Epik entitled "The Prceblem of the Comprehensive Utilization of Oil Shales (Using the Estonian SSR as an Example)." He noted that it is essential to have scientific and technical preparation for the establishment of a major new branch of the economy--the production of liquid fuels made from oil shales, bituminous sand and coal.

Academician P.N. Fedosyev, vice president of the USSR Acadeny of Sciences reported to those assembled on preparations being made by institutions of

the USSR Academy of Scientes and the scientific academies in the union republics for the implementation of measures devoted to the 60th anniversary of the formation of the USSR.

Academician N.P. Fedorenko, secretary of the Economics Division of the USSR Academy of Sciences, talked about the achievements and inadequacies in

the coordination of the country's economic research. It was noted that

the ESSR Academy of Sciences has increused its work on the utilization of the republic’s scientific potential in resolving economic problems. N.S. Pshirkov, deputy chairman of the Coordinating Council, presented a report on the ful- fillment of the decisions made by the Council's 38th session.

The following took part in discussions: Academiciars of the USSR Academy

of Sciences B.Ye. Paton, I.A. Glebov, N.M. Emanuel’ and S.V. Vonsovskiy; ' corresponding members of the USSR Academy of Sciences G.I. Gorbunov and

A.A. Zhuchenko, Academician of the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences

I.I. Lukinov, Academician of the Uzbek SSR Academy of Sciences E.Yu. Yusupov,

Academician of the Lithuanian SSR Academy of Sciences K.A. Meshkauskas,

corresponding member of the Estonian SSR Academy of Sciences M.L. Bronshteyn,

Professor A.A. Ots of Tallin Polytechnical Institute and V.P. Leyin, general

director of the Slantsekhim Production Association.

In summing up the results of the session, the Council adopted a decision

aimed at further development in the coordination of Soviet science and

at increases in its creative potential. On 9 June the conference participants visited Tartu. They were received by I.Kh. Toome, first secretary of the Tartu Gorkom of the CPE Central Committee, and N.A. Preyman, chairman of

the gorispolkom. The guests viewed the town hall.

President of the USSR Academy of Sciences A.P. Aleksandrov, Vice President V.A. Kotel'nikov and other guests visited the ESSR Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Physics. They learned about the work of the sectors devoted to laser spectroscopy, instrument building, the physics of semiconductors,

ind the physics of tonic crystals, as well as the group on laser equipment. Officials of the USSR Academy of Sciences have rated the work of the physicists highly.

Some of the conference participants, including the eminent astrophysicists Academician V.A. Ambartsumyan and corresponding member of tine USSR Academy

of Sclences Ye.K. Kharadze, took great interest in learning about the

Institute of Astrophysics and Atmospheric Physics of the ESSR Academy of Sciences. The guests visited the sectors on physics of the atmosphere and space

studies, and they viewed the 1.5-meter telescope. A working meeting with

their Estonian colleagues was held.

Academician A.P. Aleksandrov, president of the USSK Academy of Sciences, Academician P.N. Fedoseyev, vice president, R.E. Ristlaan, secretary of the CPE Central Committee, and I.Kh. Toome, first secretary of the Tartu yorkom of the CPE, met with the collective of Tartu Sate University. Academician A.P. Aleksandrov and Academician P.N. Fedoseyev presented papers. The guests familiarized themselves with the collections of the Tartu State University Scientific Library.

On 10 June the eminent scientists from the USSR Academy of Sciences met

with working people from Tallinn enterprises and employees of its scientific institutions. At the Insvitute of Geology Academician B.S. Sokolov presented

a report "On Certain Tasks of Science in the Area of Stratigraphy." Academician M.A. Styrikovich held a meeting with the collective of Estonian Naval Steamship Company; the subject of his report was "Problems of World Energy and

the World Puel Market.” Academician N.P. Fedorenko, held a conversation with the collective of the ESSR Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Economics. Academician I.A. Glebov spoke at the Vol'ta Plant, and Academician

V.A. Kotel’nikov spoke at the Punane RET [not further identified/.

Academician A.P. Aleksandrov, chairman of the Council and president of the USSR Academy of SGclences, and K.G. Vayno, first secretary of the CPE Central Committee, and others visited the exhibition "From Science to the Economy” which was opened in the main pavilion of the ESSR Exhibition of Economic Achievements. On the same day a visit was made to the Research-Demonstration Fishing Kolkhoz imeni S.M. Kirov was made by Academician A.P. Aleksandrov, president of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Academicians V.A. Kotel ‘nikov

ind P.N. Fedoseyev, who are vice presidents of the USSR Academy of Sciences, [.A. Rozanov, CPSU Central Committee sector head, and other guests accompanied by K.u. Vayno, first secretary of the CPE Central Committee, V.A. Kyao, secretary of the CPE Central Committee, and K.xt. Rebane, president of the ESSR Academy of Sciences.

On the evening of 10 June the participants in the 39th session of the Coordinating Council visited the town hall and heard a concert of ancient music. They were received by Kh.V. Lumi, first deputy chairman of the Tallinn Gorispolkom.

The work of the 39th session of the Council to Coordinate the Scientific Activities of the Union Republics’ Academies of Sciences was completed suc-

successfully. The results were summarized, and in accordance with the decisions of the 26th CPSU Congress, future directions were outlined

for the development of Soviet science, and especially for research

in the area of the USSR fuel and energy complex and energy-saving technologies. The session acquires particular meaning as a result of being held in the 60th anniversary year of the formation of the USSR, when our entire country is looking back at the road which has been traveled

and is setting out new tasks which must be completed in the near as well as the distant future.

COPYRIGHT: Kirjastus "Perioodika", ENSV TA Toimetised. Uhiskonnateadused, 1983

Sey CSOs 1814/131


[Article by G. Marchuk, deputy cha‘rman of the USSR Council of Ministers and chairman of the State Committee for Science and Technology [GKNT]: "Created, Tested, Introduced"]

[Text] There is one firm rule: equipping with leading technology ensures a

high level in the development of the national economy, and consequently in raising the rate of growth of the national income. There is a more capacious definition for leading technology, for everything new and possessing the essential difference of solving a task technically. This definition consists

of one word--invention, and we refer to creators of inventions as inventors. Today, when the Sixth All-Union Congress of the All-Union Society of Inventors and Innovators [VOIR] opens in Moscow, it is appropriate as never before to mention the great contribution being made by our inventors and rationalizers

so that ail sectors of the national economy would move faster to advanced positions of science and technology, so that the use of manual labor would be reduced, that all resources would be used rationally and that quality of production would rise.

During the 10th Five-Year Plan, 378,000 inventions and nearly 23 million rationalization proposals were worked out. The economic effect from their introduction amounted to more than R29 million--this is 1.5-fold more than in the preceding five-year plan. During the first 2 years of the current five-year plan, 7,000 new kinds of industrial products were mastered and their production was undertaken.

At the same time, and this of course will be described by delegates to the congress, the contribution by inventors and rationalizers to the de.elopment of scientific and technical progress could have been much greater. Suffice it

to cite, for example, such a figure. So far only about 30 percent of all inventions made in a year are introduced into national economy. In this connection it would be expedient to dwell on some key problems in solving which our innovators could participate more actively.

Retooling of the national economy and converting it to an intensive path of development, place new responsible tasks before machine building. It is no

mere chance that I am talking precisely about machine building. It must ensure conditions for rapid renewing of industrial equipment in all sectors of production


and for substantial economizing of metal, fuel and energy, sharply reducing the use of manual and hard labor and improving the quality and expanding the variety of consumer goods.

These problems are not new. They were already discussed more than once. Much

has been done to change the situation. At the same time, much more has to be

done to accelerate scientific and technical progress. It is very important that inventors and rationalizers actively participate in this work. Skilled direction of the creative forces of innovators toward solving key problem may yield a great effect. Shops, sectors and introduction brigades operating on a voluntary service basis and creative laboratories are called upon to make a substantial additional contribution to solving the tasks in renewing our technical park and in intesi- fying production.

What specific priority tasks are facing innovators? We must raise efficiency in creation, production and utilization of machine building production. The entire chain is mean by this--from scientific research and developments to ensuring normal exploitation of machines and equipment.

Let us note certain negative tendencies here, which are of an objective charac- ter and are connected with the transition from extensive to intensive method of housekeeping. Specifically, the proportions in renewing the fixed production capital of the national economy and, above all, of the indust’v have been somewhat violated. At many machine building enterprises, especially of the Ministry of Heavy and Transport Machine Building [Mintyazhmash] and the Ministry of Power Machine Building [Minenergomash], a considerable quantity of heavy

and special-design metalworking equipment has been in use for more than 30 years. At the same time, the basic part of amortization deductions is used not for renewing the fixed production capital but for capital repairs. As a result, several million people are currently engaged in capital repairs in industry alone.

Moreover, it must be stressed that the system of decentralized repairs which has formed in the country is conducted with serious deviations from the plant processing methods and already does not meet contemporary demands for the quality of repairs and expenditure of materials, diverts extensive labor resources and is not profitable for the national economy. It has been calculated that during the service life of an equipment unit, the expenditures for its capital repairs exceed its initial cost more than 1.5-fold, and the safe life of repaired equipment does not exceed one half of the safe life of new equipment. For example, after capital repairs of an internal combustion engine, the expenditure of oil increases 1.5-2 fold and the expenditure of fuel by 5-10 percent. At the same time, more than 40 percent of rolled stock, which is planned for the production of new products, is used annually in repairs of motor vehicles and tractors.

Hence follows the conclusion that the line outlined by by 26th CPSU Congress toward modernization of industrial enterprises and renewing fixed capital is a key direction in the development of scientific and technical progress today.


Thus, first of all, the question is about speediest reequipping of our technical park and reducing the periods for developing and introducing new technology. Unfortunately, {it must be noted, that there are still many unsolved problems here,

Here are only two specific examples. A discovery--a nondeterioration effect during fricion, a so-called selective transfer--was registered more than 15

years ago. The question is about principally new kinds of lubricants. On the basis of this discovery more than 100 technical solutions were developed which were recognized as inventions. The new lubricants make it possible to increase the service life of machine friction units fivefold, lessen their weight and size and reduce the expenditure of lubricants twofold. However, the Ministry of the Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industry [Minneftekhimprom] did not adopt energetic measures aimed at mass introduction of the new method, which held out

a billion ruble saving.

Another extremely valuable work--a gamut of new highly productive automatic continuous operation broaching machine tools for machining components of intricate shape. The development is protected by 26 patents. The inventions are patented in leading capitalist countries. One such machine tool replaces an automatic line of several milling and broaching machines. Its compactness and hizh degree of automation make multimachine servicing possible. The first experimental and industrial batch of these machine tools was produced as early is 1976. In operation they made it possible to increase labor productivity 5-9 fold. However, despite corresponding directive decisions, the Ministry of the Machine Tool and Tool Building Industry (Minstankoprom] has been unable to master their mass series production.

At the same time, the equipment which is in series production has suffered mumerous shortcomings in some instances. In basic indexes: specific metal

and energy content, productivity, reliability and durability--many of our machines are still lagging behind foreign analogs. This leads to considerable Losses of material, fuel, energy and labor resources in the national economy. "This ts why it is so important today," stresses CPSU Central Committee General Secretary Yu. V. Andropov in an article carried in the journal KOMMUNIST, "to accelerate in every possible way the rate of scientific and technical progress and to use its achievements more actively, first of all, at those sectors where labor expenditures are especially great."

The USSR State Committee for Science and Techiology together with the USSR Gosplan, the USSR Gossnab and the USSR State Committee for Standards [Gosstandard] and with participation of interested ministries and departments conducted an appraisal of the technical level of machines and equipment during the 1979-80 period. As a result of inspecting nearly 20,000 denominations of machine building production, it was established that nearly one-third of it must be modernized or removed from production and replaced with more improved output.

The basic causes reducing the technical level of machine building production

are usually unsatisfactory provision of production with modern industrial equip- ment and long periods in designing and mastering new goods in production as well as limited use in designs of progressive kinds of metal products and high-strenth materials.

Many types of machines, such as road-building machines, have lower unit power compared with the best foreign analogs, and consequently lower productivity and lesser engine life. An important problem is the output of equipment especially adapted to the north and for southern regions of the country.

Agricultural machine building requires special attention. A special resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers was recently adopt J on this question. It is necessary to devote maxinum attention to this most important sector. Here is a simple example. Let us take a tractor for instance. A good machine increases our national] wealth, and the other way round, a poor machine reduces our economy's efficiency. Hundreds of thousands if not millions of such machines are produced. Therefore, poor technical solutions

in mass produced agricultural machines is one of the most lagging positions in the field of struggle for efficiency of new equipment.

Many types of domestically produced instruments yield to the best foreign models in precision, automation of measuring processes and processing their results and in equipping with additional servicing devices.

At the same time, our country's scientists and engineers have developed a large number of first-rate instruments and equipment, which are based on original

ideas. But these instruments are available in single specimens, and their

series production has not been organized. Here the decision is left to the Ministry of Instruments Making, Automation Equipment and Control System [Minpribor].

Far from all problems have been listed here in whose solution the country's inventors and rationalizers could actively participate. Of course, the basic work must be conducted by technical services of sectors and enterprises. But much can also be done by innovators. Leading technical solutions, directed search in eliminating the weakest spots and participation in eliminating unpro- ductive manual labor. This work, by this I do not mean ideas by the process

of introducing innovations itself, is not simple. Therefore, industrial _xecutives, trade union committees and councils of the All-Union Society of Inventors and Innovators are called upon to render concrete, businesslike assistance to innovators. There is no doubt that members of the All-Union Society of Inventors and Innovators will continue making a worthy contribution to further development of scientific and technical progress, to solving tasks advanced by the 26th CPSU Congress.

Figures and Facts

One hundred three thousand primary organizations of the All-Union Society of Inventors and Innovators unite nearly 13 million people in their ranks.

Sixty percent of rationalizers and inventors are workers. Twenty-five thousand public design bureaus, nearly 10,000 public patent bureaus

and 11,500 councils of innovators are operating in the country under the supervision of organizations of the All-Union Society of Inventors and Innovators.


Nine hundred thousand innovators studied in 1982 itn various schools of young rationalizer and universities of technical creativity.

Fifty-four thousand rubles in savings were given on an average to the country by every invention that was introduced and nearly R2,000 by every rationalization proposal.

9817 C90:1814/151

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[Article by S. Kara-Murza, senior scientific associate at the USSR Academy of Sciences Institute of History of Natural Sciences and Engin ering: "What Will Be Topical Tomorrow? The Scientific Potential Must Be Used Effectively"]

[Text] Insuring the development of a solid front of scientific research in the country does not at all mean the simple, even distribution of efforts

in all directions. Of course, the first thing is to concentrate them on the most important sectors but